The authors confirm that washing bloody cotton or polyester textiles does not obliterate the blood test on them. They studied the effects of drying time before washing, the different programmes of the washing machine, the different detergents used and even the drying temperature. They obtained positive results with the use of Luminol or COMBUR solution and even a genetic profile in 28% of these positive cases. Which makes me repeat that the first quality of a person working in Forensics is optimism!
Detectability of bloodstains after machine washing
International Journal of Legal Medicine, online 21
After demonstrating that scientific evaluation standards are not adapted to forensic science, the authors cite some principles that I believe are essential for all experts. They highlight a minimum level of competence, a capacity to question and to express with conviction their analyses.
Are Forensic Scientists Experts?
Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, Vol 7 (2), 2018, pp. 199-208
The authors describe the laws of Physics that apply to the movement of traces of blood when handling a bloody object, creating the ejection model well known to all Morphoanalysts. Work that confirms that the main action of the Centrifugal Force leads to the manipulator being slightly or even not bloody as a result of the movements performed. I also hold the PDF of this article.
The Dynamics of Blood Drop Release from Swinging Objects in the Creation of Cast‐off Bloodstain Patterns
Journal of Forensic Sciences, 2018, online juillet 2018)
The author of the reflections on the place of judicial expertise in criminal proceedings in adversarial and inquisitorial systems highlights the continental European system. He modulates his opinion by pointing out the excessively close relationship that may exist between the Public Prosecutor’s Office and the experts, the absence of the parties at all stages of the investigation and the impossibility of carrying out a counter-expertise in certain disciplines, as is often the case in Genetics. It also raises the institutional independence that forensic science centres must have and which is not ensured in state laboratories around the world. He cites the IPSC of the University of Lausanne as one of the only centres meeting this requirement of autonomy.
De l’expertise judiciaire dans le cadre du procès criminel et de la recherche de la vérité : quelques réflexions
Revue de Droit Université de Sherbrooke, 1996-1977, vol 27 (1-2), 47 pages)
I am pleased to see that some, although they are primarily academics and not practitioners in the field, point to the need for an objective or even automatic method of identifying blood trace patterns. They develop it on impact or ejection models, both of which are composed of projections. It is since 2006 that I have been pointing out that these models are mainly differentiated by the distribution of blood traces, convergent for the impact model and linear for the ejection model. And for almost 10 years I have been using and teaching my identification key, an objective method for identifying traces of blood already well known in the Animal and Plant Worlds.
An automated approach to the classification of impact spatter and cast-off bloodstain patterns
Forensic science Inernational, 2018, 289, pp 310-319)
The authors focus on the limitations and vulnerabilities of decision-making under significant conditions of uncertainty. Emphasizing emotional and cognitive biases, they develop the influence they can have on the reliability of forensic results. Finally, they indicate that a scientific basis would be useful in determining the value of evidence and therefore forensic analysis.
Examining the Role of Science in the Courtroom: Admissibility and reliability of forensic science
Albany law review, 2018).
The authors remind me of a case in which I was involved and for which I was able to differentiate menstrual blood from peripheral blood. They offer the TEICHMANN test. This test is already well known in our environment as a test to confirm the blood origin of the sample, it would give a negative result for menstrual blood. If this result is confirmed, the differentiation would become very simple.
Detection and comparaison of normal and menstruel Blood sangles found at crime scene
International Journal of Current research in Life Sciences, 2018, vol 07 (06), pp2233-2236)
The authors of this article show us the interest of the ParaDNA Body Fluid ID Test. It identifies the nature of six types of biological traces: vaginal fluid, seminal fluid, semen, saliva, menstrual blood and circulatory blood in 90 minutes, they say!
Developmental Validation of the ParaDNA® Body Fluid ID System – A rapid multiplex mRNA-profiling system for the forensic identification of body fluids
(Forensic Science International: Genetics, online 23 août 2018)
The authors show us that we must always believe in it. Indeed, despite walls that have been plastered and repainted up to 6 times, it is possible to find traces of blood. To do this, they highlight a preparation of the area to be treated by moistening it before using a Luminol solution. They even obtained DNA profiles in 74% of cases after this preparatory action.
Detectability, visualization, and DNA analysis of bloodstains after repainting the walls
(International Journal of Légal Medicine 2018, pp1-10)
The American and English authors confirm that the credibility of the expert in the eyes of the jurors depends as much on the behaviour and tone used by the expert as on his training and the scientific demonstration of his results.
Jurors’ perceptions of forensic science expert witnesses: Experience, qualifications, testimony style and credibility
(Forensic Science International, online 9 août 2018).
The work of this Dutch team has already made it possible to differentiate identical twins. Today they show that it is possible to differentiate them on their saliva collected by swab or on a cigarette butt.
Investigating the Epigenetic Discrimination of Identical Twins Using Buccal Swabs, Saliva, and Cigarette Butts in the Forensic Setting (May 2018)
The study conducted by this Australian team shows that it is possible to find su sperm on soiled clothing despite 6 washes.
A pilot study: The effects of repeat washing and fabric type on the detection of seminal fluid and spermatozoa (Forensic Science International, August 2018, Vol 289: pp. 51-56)
We have been hearing for a long time why bloody clues should be allowed to dry, why they should not be stored in plastic bags. The authors explain why and propose the best attitudes to have according to the nature of the bloody support.
Medecine Science International Medical Journal (2018)
My methodology provides that to determine a chronology between two bloody sequences, I must find at least one interaction between traces of each sequence. The authors offer us a significant help to determine the direction of the interaction between a passive trace and a contact transfer.
Visual characteristics for sequencing of overlapping bloodstain patterns
(Forensic Science International, mars 2018)
It is frequent that technicians cannot verify in situ the blood nature of a trace because it is small and you do not want to lose the possibility of extracting DNA. The authors propose a test in the form of a strip to take the trace. They then use hypespectral imaging to allow contactless identification. This does not alter a subsequent DNA search if it is blood.
The application of near-infrared reflectance hyperspectral imaging for the detection and extraction of bloodstains
(Cluster Computing, feb. 2018: pp. 1-9).
Despite the information provided by suppliers PolyCyano UV (Foster + Freeman Ltd) as well as Lumicyano™ (Crime Science technology) are not without effect on contact DNA. Both can cause loss of important fragments preventing the determination of a complete DNA profile.
Impact of One-Step Luminescent Cyanoacrylate Treatment on Subsequent DNA Analysis
(Forensic Science International, feb 2018).
The authors present a method for age determination in the sensitive 11-21 age group based on calcification of long bone heads at knees and ankles. Estimation of Age Group (11–21 Years) By Roentgenologic Study of Epiphyseal Fusion of Long Bones At Knee And Ankle Joints
(Journal of Punjab Academy of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology: Vol 17(2), 2017, pp. 80-86).
I am happy to read from colleagues, even more academics than in the field, the methodology I have been defending for more than 10 years. Thus, it is finally recognized in New Zealand that access to survey data must be limited to what is strictly necessary and that the person who verifies the results is unaware of the survey. And this organization of work does not require a lot of staff, time and financial resource.
Contextual information management: An example of independent-checking in the review of laboratory-based bloodstain pattern analysis (Science & Justice, 2018).
While this may seem abstract to some, knowing how far horizontally a trace of blood travels following a percussion is essential information to know the victim’s position during this event. Thus the work carried out by Gareth Liew for his thesis has immediate practical application.
Determining the furthest distance travelled horizontally by impact spatter blood drop
Masters by Coursework thesis, Murdoch University, 2017).
I am happy to read that I am no longer the only one advocating a methodology organized around two themes, Identification and Analysis, which follow one another to make the expert conclusions as objective as possible.
Journal of Forensic Sciences 63 (1), p. 341, 2018.
This organization allowed me to obtain ISO 17020 accreditation in 2014, which no other organization has yet obtained.
The thesis work carried out shows that it is possible to find fingerprints on kitchen knives that have been dishwashed and highlights the techniques that should be used as appropriate.
The enhancement of fingerprints on kitchen knives that have been through a wash cycle in the dishwater (N. Juriansz, 2017)
This thesis makes it possible to make an inventory of the different methods of extraction of sperm cells from a cell mixture.
Forensic techniques for the isolation of sperm cells from mixed cell fractions
(A review, Murdoch University)
Today it is possible to highlight fingerprints on fruits (apple, tomato) and vegetables (onions, potato) with at least three types of powders including simple black powder. If we except the tomato, this highlighting remains possible at least 2 weeks after deposition.
The Visualization of latent fingerprints on fruits and vegetables
Journal of Emerging Forensic Sciences Research Vol 2 (2)).
It is common for the individual identified as a wearer to indicate that he or she has lent his or her clothing to another person and that the latter has not left his or her DNA there. The authors allow us to advance in this thorny issue of determining the clothing wearer through DNA through experience including up to three wearers. And as they conclude, it is extremely rare that we do not find the DNA of a wearer, even if the wearing of the garment was brief, 10min for example.
Impact of several wearers on the persistence of DNA on clothes—a study with experimental scenarios
(International Journal of Legal Medicine, NOv. 2017: pp1-7)
In recent years, various authors have focused on the study of traces on clothing, demonstrating that the alteration by the fabric of these traces makes them difficult to interpret (What we already knew from earlier publications: BRIGGS-1978 KARGER-1998, SLEMKO, 2003). Human obstinacy makes them continue their studies without solving the real problem of the nature of the fabric that damages the outline of the trace and without answering questions, was the clothing worn? if so, by a spectator or an aggressor? And above all, by not taking into account that the morphoanalyst will more seriously study the traces that stain the neighbouring walls of the possibly soiled protagonists.
Chapter Seven – Forensic Interpretation of Bloodstains on Fabrics
(Forensic Textile Science, 2017 : pp127-167)
It is known that flies from the first squads can create traces of blood. These lead to misinterpretation if the morphoanalysts are not sensitive to this type of artifact. The authors suggest that we observe the results of the Lucilia cuprina fly in a house where human blood is available.
Location of Artifacts Deposited by the Blow Fly Lucilia cuprina After Feeding on Human Blood at Simulated Indoor Crime Scenes
(Journal of Forensic Sciences, Nov 2017).
The possibility for the expert to be biased in the rendering of these results is an opportunity that has concerned me for years and has led me to develop methods related to this perspective. This is why I could only welcome the work of the authors, who demonstrate to us through 403 experts from 21 countries that the bias is not sufficiently taken into account.
Cognitive Bias and Blindness: A Global Survey of Forensic Science Examiners
(Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, Nov. 2017)
The studies conducted show that replacing Luminol with Artimisinin reduces the number of false positives while maintaining a sensitivity threshold of 100,000 and the production of photo documentation by smartPhone.
Artemisinin-luminol chemiluminescence for forensic blood- stain detection using smart phone as detector
(Analytical Chemistry, May 2017)
The authors introduce the use of X-ray fluorescence (MA-XRF) for the detection of human traces and gunshot residue on large surfaces such as complete clothing or walls. This technique also allows in high resolution to give the order of shots with different ammunition. X-rays also make it possible to find an impact signature even if it is covered by multiple layers of wallpaper or blood.
Large area imaging of forensic evidence with MA-XRF
(Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 15056, 2017)
The authors calculated the detection threshold for Luminol for blood on cotton at 200,000. Beyond this result, they propose a technique for determining the sensitivity thresholds for all products used in the detection of blood traces.
A quantitative method for determining a representative detection limit of the forensic luminol test for latent bloodstains (Forensic Science International, Vol 278, Sept. 2017: pp. 396-403)
This work shows the effectiveness of using Raman spectroscopy to non-destructively analyze blood traces, highlighting specific changes over time up to two years. The observed changes in spectra over time were consistent with known biochemical processes that occur when blood ages naturally, and these variations were sufficient to allow differentiation and predictions of time from deposition to 2 years with an overall accuracy of ~70%.
Predicting the time of the crime: Bloodstain
If the level of gene methylation is a function of the person’s age, the authors show that from traces of blood, they have identified the level of methylation of selected genes and thus determined the person’s age with a maximum error of 6 years and this over a panel of 82 women aged 18 to 91 years.
Methylation Status and Human Age at ree Autosomal Loci: A New Forensic Pro ling Tool
(Journal of Forensic and Crime Studies, Nov 2017, Vol 1 (1))
A theoretical model describing the distribution of blood spatter resulting from a blunt bullet is proposed based on Rayleigh-Taylor instability (responsible for the sizes of blood drops generated and their initial velocity) and the effects of gravity and friction. Today, this model is theoretical, but I know Daniel ATTINGER well enough to know his desire to discover a model applicable in the real world.
Hydrodynamics of back spatter by blunt bullet gunshot with a link to bloodstain pattern analysis
(Physical Review Fluids 2, July 2017)
Sexual assault is a serious offence and the identification of body fluids related to sexual activity is important. While reliable tests for the detection of semen and saliva exist, the detection of other body fluids, such as vaginal or menstrual fluids, is more difficult. The authors present the validation of an immunochromatographic test that allows such discrimination, the SERATEC PMB test, and its results in real cases. The results show that this test is a real improvement in the analysis and interpretation of evidence from sexual assaults.
Forensic differentiation between peripheral and menstrual blood in cases of alleged sexual assault—validating an immunochromatographic multiplex assay for simultaneous detection of human hemoglobin and D-dimer (International Journal of Legal Medicine, Oct 2017: pp. 1-8)
The fingerprint brush is well known for its potential for cross-contamination between evidence, highlighting the risk of using the same fingerprint brush on multiple surfaces inside and between crime scenes. The authors indicate a method of cleaning these brushes by using a solution containing 1% bleach and 5% Virkon (DNA decontamination of fingerprint brushes, Forensic Science International May 2017)
Recent advances in drone technology have not only facilitated its access but also reduced the cost of aerial imagery. The authors show the prospects of 3D modelling with low-end technology based on three simulations of outdoor forensic scenes involving a manikin, skeletal remains and artificial blood were built in an abandoned quarry. The results showed that the tool is effective in searching for dispersed body parts but is insufficient for less easily identifiable evidence, such as traces of blood. These were only detected after they had been properly marked by human action.
Using drone-mounted cameras for on-site body documentation: 3D mapping and active survey (Forensic Science International, Oct 2017)
The action of flies at a bloody crime scene, feeding on the blood present, regularly leads to misinterpretation by the Morphoanalyst who is not aware of this action. This is why Christopher Dwen conducted his thesis on this subject proposing to add to the morphological criteria already studied, the study of external factors influencing the distribution of traces, the shape and color of each trace. What the experienced Morphoanalysts are already doing (Dwen, C. J.L., 2017).
Alteration of bloodstain patterns by Diptera:
While it is known that DNA methylation can differentiate between homozygous twins, the authors show its potential in forensic science.
Epigenetic discrimination of identical twins from blood under the forensic scenario (Forensic Science International: Genetics, Vol 31, Nov. 2017: pp.67-80)
I had the chance to attend a meeting with Don. J. Johnson and to hear him present us the very interesting results of his team concerning the identification of the injured area from microRNAs contained in the traces of blood flowing from the wound.
A Molecular Method to Detect Wound Cells in Bloodstains Resultant of Sharp Force Injuries for Crime Scene Reconstruction (Journal of Forensic Sciences, août 2017)
The perpetrators can set fire to destroy the evidence. It is accepted that blood and especially DNA are no longer usable beyond a temperature of 1000°C. However, following their work, the authors conclude that even after exposure to a maximum temperature of 1000°C, complete DNA was obtained on 60% of the traces. That is why we must pay the same attention to burnt scenes as to others. You always have to look, that’s often how you find it!
Detection of blood and DNA traces after thermal exposure International Journal of Legal Medicine, Oct 2017: pp. 1-9)
The authors present their method using mRNAs and microRNAs to date traces of blood. Their results seem encouraging.
Quantification of RNA degradation of blood-specific markers to indicate the age of bloodstains (Forensic Science International, Oct 2017)
The authors demonstrate that the Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR)-Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) technique combined with advanced chemometric methods can be used as a non-destructive and rapid method to estimate the age of blood traces at a real crime scene.
Estimation of the age of human bloodstains under the simulated indoor and outdoor crime scene conditions by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy (Science Reports, Oct 2017)
The kastel-Meyer test also called the KM is widely used in Genetics to confirm the blood origin of the index. This publication shows the deleterious action of one of these components on DNA. This is why this test must be carried out on only part of the unanalyzed trace or else another confirmatory test such as the one proposed by the authors of this study must be used.
Kastle-Meyer blood test reagents are deleterious to DNA (Forensic Science International, oct. 2017)
The authors highlight Green Leucomalachite, indicating that it is the most suitable test to test the blood origin of a sample, with the fewest false positives. They even indicate that LMV should replace Benzedine. I remind you that these two products are highly toxic, today benzidine is only used in France under a hood. If the LMV has few false positives, light is one, which induces a certain reaction in a house for example. It should be added that the reaction medium of the LMV is very acidic, making it very altering for DNA analysis.
Presumptive tests: A substitute for Benzidine in blood samples recognition (Forensic Sciences International Genetics)
The authors aim to explain the impact of surface roughness and wettability on the traces that stain a surface.
Roughness influence on human blood drop spreading and splashing (70th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics, Sunday–Tuesday, November 19–21, 2017; Denver, Colorado)
DNA methylation is increasingly recognized for its potential use in age prediction. In this study, the author prediction model based on three CpG sites in three methylation markers was able to predict the age for liquid blood samples over 5 years.
Evaluation of DNA methylation-based age prediction on blood (Forensic Science International Genetics, Oct 2017).
American colleagues highlight the inconsistency in the use of Bayesian statistics in forensics and propose a new method.
Likelihood Ratio as Weight of Forensic Evidence: A Closer Look (NIST publications)
The authors propose an estimate of the age of individuals based on the ratio of pulp volume to dental volume from morphological data from 3D views of the upper canine pulp cavity.
Morphology and Volume of Maxillary Canine pulp cavity for individual Age estimation in Forensic Dentistry (Int. J. Morphol., 35(3):1058-1062, 2017)
The authors show us that taking anticoagulants modifies the cohesion of the blood
Effect of anticoagulation therapy on drying times in bloodstain pattern analysis
(International Journal of Legal Medicine, pp. 1-7, May 2017).
If we could expect this type of drug to affect the rheology and drying time of the blood, they do not change the shape of the expected traces.
In order to make the identification of blood trace models robust and objective, I have developed for several years a process for identifying blood trace models based solely on morphological criteria of the traces studied and the supports on which they are found.
Bloodstain Pattern Identification Key
The study compared Bluestar with Lumiscene Ultra. The authors conclude that the intensity of the reaction decreases more quickly with the Bluestar but that its luminescence and therefore observation time is longer.
Duration and intensity of chemiluminescence of different luminol kits, Rechtsmedezin, vol 27, pp. 1-6).
The evaluation conducted on behalf of the U.S. federal standards body indicates that the tools currently in use are not satisfactory. The interest of authorization makes the authors propose a new technique based on automatic learning (ConNets).
Automated latent fingerprint recognition
The authors discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using photogammetry routinely for bloodstain pattern analysis
The currently available possibilities for the application of photogrammetry in the forensic medical expertise of the blood stains at the scene of the crime, Sud Med Ekspert. 2017; 60(2) : pp. 41-44). My experience leads me to add that, to my knowledge, this is the best 3D modelling technique for the activity but that its use remains difficult on site. Article in Russian….
The study conducted by the authors corrects the common interpretation of the circular aspect of the traces composing an ejection model.
Interpretation von Schleuderspuren im Rahmen der Blutspurenmusteranalyse, Rechtsmedizin vol 27(2), pp. 83-97).
For those who can read German, I think this article is interesting. I proposed to its author to come and present his work at the European Morphoanalysis Conference in Poland, for which I am the scientific coordinator
Rechtsmedizin 2017, pp 1–5
Here is a book that will provide an approach to the Baysian networks that are increasingly used in the argumentation of analytical results.
Designing and Understanding Forensic Bayesian Networks using Argumentation
Without waiting for the validation of their method, the authors reveal that RAMAN spectroscopy can be used to determine the type of dry blood traces. A portable RAMAN will then be able to determine in situ the identification of fluids with information such as race, gender, etc.
Analytical Chemistry, December 23, 2016
The authors studied the accuracy of the FARO Focus3D laser scanner to determine the area of origin of projections following percussion. The results enter a tennis ball even if the deformation of the traces as a function of the curvature of the soiled surface cannot be determined IABPA news, 32 (2):pp. 21-26
Authors recognized as eminent researchers in the field of blood trace dating show that today no method applicable in a crime scene exists.
chapitre : Blood degradation and bloodstain age Estimation
This thesis studies the interest of taking the smallest projections (<3mm) to determine the 3D position of the blood source. Master of Forensic Science de Brinda Salaskar. This interesting work also shows the limits of this method on a real stage and therefore the relevance of my Limiting Angles method.
The authors develop a tool to simulate the dispersion of blood traces following a ballistic shooting. They find little difference between their reconstruction and their testing. However, using a 100ml plastic bag of blood for their tests, they conceal the potential action of bone and organic debris from a ballistic injury.
Indian Journal of Forensic Médecine & Toxicology, 2017 11(1): pp. 239-249
The authors, known for their involvement in the study of blood traces on tissues, confirm the significant influence of this type of support on traces of blood contaminating it. This is why interpretation based solely on traces of blood contaminating tissues remains difficult or even impossible today.
IABPA news 32(2): pp. 15-20
The authors study the phenomenon of blood impact on a smooth surface through the surface tensions of the blood and the wettability of the surface.
Cornell University Library>Physics>Fluide Dynamics
This study shows that the new version of the Lumicyano, the Lumicyano Kit, gives better results on fresh or not, revealed on glass, aluminium and light or dark plastics.
Journal of Forensic Identification, 66 (6), pp. 560-576
The authors propose a RAMAN technique to identify the sex of the donor of saliva traces found. They obtain 92% success on traces found on the scene of facts.
Sex determination based on Raman spectroscopy of saliva traces for forensic purposes
(Analytical Chemistry novembre 2016).
The authors offer us a review of the different techniques for identifying existing bites.
Forensic bitemark identification: weak foundations, exaggerated claims
(Journal of Law and the Biosciences November 2016).
The authors propose a tool that could automate the identification of blood traces on stage. To be further developed…
7ème conférence chinoise à Chengdu 5-7 novembre 2016
Fingerprints remain the simplest way to identify the presence of an individual at a fact scene. So the development of software by our Indian colleagues to exploit these fingerprints by automatic identification systems is important.
International Journal of Innovative technologies, Vol 4 (8), 2016, pp: 1504-1510
Many teams around the world are trying to find the right method to date blood traces. My research is in line with this Indian article where spectrometry seems to be the best way forward.
Feel free to ask me for the full article.
Indian Internet Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology Vol. 13 (2), 2015, pp. 25-29
For years I have been advocating for an objective and verifiable identification of blood trace patterns. Current work in New Zealand supports this method.
Forensic Science International 257 (2015) pp. 220-228
Science & Justice, 56 (2) (2016), pp. 123-128
Document established, based on the work of our Mexican colleagues, which sets up a standardization of fingerprint disclosure techniques on all types of surfaces as part of a multidisciplinary crime scene investigation action (July-September 2016)
The authors’ work makes it possible to highlight methods that make it possible to discover both fingerprints and contact DNA.
International Journal of Forensic Medicine, 2016: pp. 1-9
Although everyone is familiar with back-projection, few are familiar with the phenomenon. Then the theoretical model proposed by the authors could make it possible to better identify these traces in the diversity of projections that may be present at a crime scene.
American Physic Society Division of Fluid Mechanics Annual Meeting in Portland, Oregon, USA
Conférence le 21 novembre à 10:40
The article describes a promising and non-invasive method of estimating human age. This is the calculation of the pulp-tooth ratio of the central incisor of the jawbone for which, among the software used, AutoCAD and Adobe Photoshop are the most accurate.
S Basoya, VC Vinod, P Nath, AD Bhogte :
Estimation of Age by Pulp-Tooth Area ration using Three Computer aided software’s – Quality in Primary Care (2016) 24 (4): 161-166).
Some murderers try to hide their actions by staging them in a way that makes them think of suicide. This article highlights the clues to identify a real suicide through psychological autopsy (1), suicidal reconstitution (2), crime scene analysis (3) and psychological clues (4).
J. Vandevoorde, N. Estano (La Revue de Médecine Légale)
Homicide maquillé et suicide : complémentarité de la suicidologie, de la criminologie et de la médecine légale
The fingerprint brush remains a vector of DNA contamination. And the powdered ones seem to be the most harmful according to the work of Hee Won Min & Sungwook Hong.
Analytical Science and Technology, 29 (2), 2016, pp.85-93
The publication “Evaluation of forensic DNA mixture evidence: protocol for evaluation, interpretation, and statistical calculations using the combined probability of inclusion” presents a working protocol for DNA mixtures for which the validation of the expert’s interpretation may be problematic..
BMC Genetics 2016, 17:125
THANK YOU to Erin Houston for her work and thesis “The effects of various laundering factors on the recoverability of DNA” published by Wright State University (Ohio – USA). It demonstrates that DNA can be found with standard extraction techniques after the use of cleaning products or machine cleaning (Chapters 2, 3) and that DNA transfers into the machine are possible (Chapter 4).